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Milk as medicine - benefits of an exclusive human milk diet in the preterm and high risk infant

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Learning Objectives:

  • Review the physiology of the infant's gut as an immune organ
  • Evaluate the components of human milk, especially human milk oligosaccharides (HMO)
  • Discuss the impact of human milk and nutrition on the neonatal microbiome, brain, cell and tissue
  • Examine the AAP 2012 Policy on Breastfeeding and Use of Human Milk, and the AAP 2016 Policy on Donor Milk
  • Explore how to implement an exclusive human milk diet for extremely premature infants
  • Review the literature on the clinical outcomes in the use of an exclusive human milk diet for <1250g infants


Terry S. Johnson, APN, NNP-BC, CLEC, ASPPS, MN, CE

Director, Education and Professional Development